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Jews -- Social conditions

 Subject
Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings

Found in 16 Collections and/or Records:

Adelebsen Jewish Community Records

 Collection
Identifier: RG 244
Overview The collection contains records of the Jewish community of Adelebsen, Germany, spanning the years 1832 to 1917. During this period Adelebsen, a small town in the vicinity of Göttingen, was at first located in the kingdom of Hanover. When the latter was annexed by the kingdom of Prussia in 1866 it became known as the province of Hanover; and in 1871 it became part of the German Empire. A small amount of material pertains to the Jewish community in Barterode, some members of which eventually joined the Adelebsen community. Approximately half of the collection comprises financial records covering the period from 1838 to 1917 (with gaps), including annual statements; account books; lists of taxes, donations, synagogue fines, and synagogue seat fees collected from members; lists of families with school-age children; and accounts of the Adelebsen Jewish charitable association. The remainder of the records comprise administrative correspondence and documents, with correspondents including the government offices in Adelebsen, Uslar, and Hildesheim; the rabbis who headed regional districts of Jewish communities ('Landrabbiner'); and community members, including Sally Blumenfeld, the long-time teacher heading the Jewish school. Noteworthy documents include a handwritten copy of the Hanoverian synagogue regulations issued by Rabbi Nathan Marcus Adler in 1832, with later amendments; minutes of two meetings with Adler, one in 1836 at which he initiated the project to build a new synagogue; a regulation of 1841 governing the community's tax assessment; minutes of oath-taking by community officers and assessors in the Adelebsen municipal court; election materials; and files related to matters such as employment of the Jewish teacher, petition for exemption from the municipal poor tax, preparations for matzah baking, and purchase of a garden plot to expand the Jewish cemetery.
Dates: circa 1775, 1830-1917; Majority of material found within 1832-1917

Germany (Vilna Archives) Collection

 Collection
Identifier: RG 31
Overview The Germany (Vilna Archives) collection contains materials of diverse provenances pertaining to Jewish life in Germany and, to a much lesser extent, other German-speaking areas of central Europe (Austria, Bohemia, Moravia), from the 16th century until the beginning of the Second World War. It includes correspondence, financial records, official documents, business records, writings, minutes, reports, book catalogs, printed ephemera, occasional clippings, and a handful of photographs. A little more than 60% of the collection comprises personal and family papers, or individual items of correspondence (approximately 140 different name headings); and a little over 20%, portions of the records of the Jewish communities of Darmstadt, Frankfurt am Main, Filehne (Wieleń), Raschkow (Raszków), and Rybnik. The remainder of the collection consists of various printed ephemera and scattered records related to Jewish communities, organizations, or firms, including publishers and booksellers. Also included are some 15 individual older items dating from the mid 16th to the early decades of the 19th century, including Schutzbriefe (residence permits), petitions, and attestations, as well as a mohel book (registry of circumcisions). Especially noteworthy among the personal papers are those of art dealer Josef Sandel, comparative law scholar Ernst Rabel, the Henschel brothers (artists), writer and social activist Lina Morgenstern, engineer Erich Kempinski, and writer and editor Julius Rodenberg. The several rabbis represented include Josef Jona Horovitz, of Hunsdorf (Huncovce) and Frankfurt am Main; Salomon Breuer and Isidor Friedmann, both of Frankfurt am Main; and Wolf Landau, of Dresden.
Dates: 1567-1945; Majority of material found within 1732-1938

Guide to the Tamar Morad, Dennis and Robert Shasha Collection of Iraqi Jewish Oral Histories

 Collection
Identifier: ASF AR 72
Overview This collection contains oral history materials collected by Tamar Morad, Robert Shasha, and Dennis Shasha, in connection with the writing and compilation of the book Iraq's Last Jews: Stories of Daily Life, Upheaval, and Escape from Modern Babylon (Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), including approximately 60 audio recordings of interviews, with at least one third accompanied by transcripts; and a small amount of related biographical material, including memoirs and other writings, one family history, and photographs. The collection contains the interview recordings on which 18 of the 20 narratives in the published book were based. In addition, it contains oral histories or autobiographical narratives pertaining to more than 40 individuals whose stories are not told in the book. The interviewees and their families represent a range of professions, including international merchants and bankers, as well as rabbis, doctors, politicians, intellectuals, musicians, poets, and artists. The materials convey personal accounts of Jewish life in Iraq from approximately the 1920s to the early 1980s, as well as Iraqi Jewish experiences of emigration, transit journeys, and new lives in the diaspora, in locations including Iran, India, Japan, China, Israel, Great Britain, Canada, and the United States.
Dates: circa 1900, 1930s-2007; Majority of material found within 2003-2007

Heinz Markwald Collection

 Collection
Identifier: AR 25278 / MF 855
Overview Correspondence and ephemera relating to the early years of Heinz Wolfgang Markwald (1911-2005) in Berlin, Germany until 1937
Dates: [unknown]

Höxter Family Collection

 Collection
Identifier: AR 6875
Overview This collection contains correspondence sent by Käthe and Hugo Höxter, first from their home in Mannheim, and then beginning late 1940 from the Gurs camp, to their son Heinz (Henry) in Louisiana.
Dates: 1938-1942, 1991

Jews in Shanghai Collection

 Collection
Identifier: AR 2509
Overview The Jews in Shanghai Collection contains an assortment of original and photocopied documentation of Jews in Shanghai during the 1930s and 1940s. In addition it includes an abundance of personal narratives, newspaper clippings and scholarly articles on this subject as well as on the origins of the Jewish Community in Shanghai.
Dates: 1933-2002

Josef Klausner Collection

 Collection
Identifier: AR 6402
Overview The collection consists of photocopies of letters (typed and handwritten) from Josef Klausner, in Berlin, to his son Julius, in the United States.
Dates: 1936-1941

Lithuanian Jewish Communities Collection

 Collection
Identifier: RG 2
Overview The Lithuanian Jewish Communities Collection is comprised of documents relating to Jewish cultural, religious, social, political, and economic life in approximately 150 towns in Lithuania. The bulk of the collection pertains to the period between 1919 and 1926, when elements of a system of Jewish national autonomy existed within the Lithuanian state, including a Ministry of Jewish Affairs and governmentally empowered Jewish community councils. Smaller parts of the collection relate to the periods before (1860-1918) and after (1927-1940) the autonomy.
Dates: 1860-1941

Norman Patz Papers

 Collection
Identifier: P-997
Overview This collection contains correspondence, photographs and negatives of sites and trips taken, material concerning Soviet Jewry activism and Synagogue services, and trip reports of visits to Jews in the Soviet Union.
Dates: 1970-2007; Majority of material found within 1985 - 1989

Otto Käufler Collection

 Collection
Identifier: AR 5151
Overview Most of this collection consists of correspondence between the Käuflers in Ecuador and acquaintances in their hometown of Prostějov (Prossnitz); there are also two ship passenger lists from the year 1939.
Dates: 1939-1941

Records of the Briesen Jewish Community Council

 Collection
Identifier: RG 15
Overview The collection comprises a portion of the records of the Jewish Community of Briesen, known in German as the Synagogen-Gemeinde zu Briesen, in what today is the Polish town of Wąbrzeźno, located in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship. Wąbrzeźno was under Polish rule from the mid 15th century until 1772, when, as a result of the First Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, it was annexed by Prussia, and became part of the province of West Prussia. Following the First World War, the town fell within German territories that were ceded to the Second Polish Republic. The Jewish Community of Briesen was established in the first decades of the 19th century, during the Prussian period. The present records, dated 1871 to 1921, are concentrated in the era of the German Empire; only a handful of items date from the years 1920-1921, when the town was part of Poland. The collection comprises administrative and financial records kept by the Briesen Jewish Community Council, except for one volume of records kept by the Jüdischer Lese-Verein (Jewish Reading Society) of Briesen, in the years 1901 to 1908. Approximately 40% of the collection comprises financial records, 1882-1921, including official budgets and tax lists; and another 20% comprises records related to community employees, especially rabbis and cantors. The remainder of the collection includes correspondence, communal meeting minutes and decisions, circulars announcing meetings, and a variety of administrative records. Included are records pertaining to communal council elections; synagogue seat rentals; burials and the care of graves; the construction and maintenance of the mikveh (ritual bath house); the expansion of the cemetery; synagogue rules and the renovation of the synagogue; charitable activities and cooperation with regional and national Jewish organizations; and the religious school and Jewish elementary school.
Dates: 1871-1921

Records of the Farband fun di Yidishe Studentn Fareynen in Daytshland (Verband Jüdischer Studentenvereine in Deutschland; Union of Jewish Student Associations in Germany)

 Collection
Identifier: RG 18
Overview This collection contains the records of the Union of Jewish Student Associations in Germany (Yiddish: Farband fun di Yidishe Studentn Fareynen in Daytshland; German: Verband Jüdischer Studentenvereine in Deutschland), an umbrella organization of associations of East European Jewish students who were pursuing their education in cities throughout Germany in the 1920s. Along with the Union's records are the records of two of its affiliate associations, the Jewish Student Association in Berlin and the Jewish Student Association in Jena. The student associations and the umbrella organization that they founded aimed to further Jewish cultural life among members; to provide material assistance to members in need; and to advocate for the interests of members vis-à-vis state and academic authorities. Included are administrative records such as bylaws, minutes, and announcements; materials documenting membership meetings of the Berlin association and conferences of the umbrella organization; petitions and correspondence from members concerning financial aid; materials documenting libraries maintained by the students, and other activities; and general correspondence. Among the correspondents are Jewish charitable and social-welfare organizations that contributed to the support of East European Jewish students through the student associations, including the Yidishe Velt-Hilfs-Konferents (Conférence Universelle Juive de Secours, Paris), the Verband der Russischen Juden, the Hilfsverein der Deutschen Juden, and the Zentralwohlfahrtsstelle der Deutschen Juden, as well as the Jewish Community of Berlin, and Jewish communities in other cities in Germany. The collection also includes a relatively small amount of materials of mixed provenance documenting the activities of other associations and umbrella organizations of East European Jewish students, both in Eastern Europe and the West, the greatest portion related to interwar Poland, especially Vilna.
Dates: 1913-1917, 1920-1939; Majority of material found within 1920-1930

Records of the Ostrowo Jewish Community Council

 Collection
Identifier: RG 13
Overview The collection comprises a portion of the records of the Jewish community of Ostrów Wielkopolski, today in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland Voivodeship. The region was annexed by Prussia in 1793, in the Second Partition of Poland; in German the town was known as Ostrowo. The records date mainly from 1834 to 1919, with a few materials from as early as 1823. During this period the town was part of the Posen (Poznań) region of Prussia and, after 1871, of the German Empire; in 1919, it was incorporated into the Second Republic of Poland. The community numbered nearly 2,000 members in the late 19th century and declined steadily thereafter due to migration of members to larger German cities or overseas; only a small Jewish community remained during the interwar period. The records are mainly those of the Jewish communal administration, or council; a small amount of material pertains to several community voluntary organizations. Included are financial records such as budgets, balance sheets, and tax lists; communal minutes and decisions throughout the period; correspondence with the government, and, to a lesser extent, with Jewish organizations and other Jewish communities; petitions from individual community members, especially pertaining to charitable aid in the mid to late 19th century; records pertaining to communal educational and religious institutions; records on the hiring and employment of community rabbis and other personnel, including application materials from candidates not hired; property records and mortgages; documentation of construction and renovation of communal buildings; records related to court cases, bequests, and estate and guardianship matters; and ephemera such as meeting notices and announcement fliers, as well as scattered clippings.
Dates: 1822-1919

Rimalower Family Collection

 Collection
Identifier: AR 25529
Overview The bulk of the collection contains letters to Harry Rimalower in Argentina from his parents and other family members in Leipzig, Germany, (1936-1940). Included in the letters are updates on family members and friends in Germany, discussion of the ever-worsening situation there, and discussion of efforts to facilitate the emigration of Harry Rimalower's parents from Germany. English-language translations of several letters are included. Also included is a brief history of the Eppstein family of Mannheim and a family tree of the Bernhard Solomon family from the 17th century to 1937, with birth and death dates and locations.
Dates: 1936-2002

Schutzbriefe (Letters of Protection) Collection

 Collection
Identifier: AR 285
Overview Misc. letters of protection ("Schutzbriefe") for Jews from various German cities and principalities, like Baden, Hesse, Hanover, Trier and others. Original letters range 1767–1846.
Dates: 1586-1846

Steffi Winters Collection

 Collection
Identifier: AR 10219
Overview This collection contains a copy of Elisabeth Schönfeld's diary written during the Nazi dictatorship, as well as a few photographs, a manuscript by Lucie Meyer on her emigration to France, and a couple of family papers. All items are photocopies, except the photographs.
Dates: 1918-1952