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George Croghan (c. 1718–1782), Bernard (1738–1801) and Michael (1740-1811) Gratz, undated, 1773 May 26, 1780 July 16



  • undated, 1773 May 26
  • 1780 July 16


Historical Note

George Croghan was a Irish immigrant who befriended numerous American Indian tribes during the era of wars on the North American continent between Native tribes, the British and the French. He negotiated on behalf of the Native Americans and bought several hundred thousand acres of Native land in New York and Pennsylvania, but various reasons kept him indigent. The Gratz brothers, Bernard and Michael, who knew Croghan though earlier guided tours through the Western frontiers, helped finance Croghan as he had become persona non grata with new American leaders during the Revolutionary War. The Gratz family originally hailed from Poland, with Bernard immigrating to the Pennsylvania colony in 1754.


From the Collection: 0.25 Linear Feet

Language of Materials

From the Collection: English


Articles regarding George Croghan and the Gratz brothers.
  • 1. Byars, William Vincent. “THE GRATZ PAPERS.” Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society, no. 23 (1915): 1–23.
  • 2. Jeffers, Joshua J. "George Croghan." The Fred W. Smith National Library for the Study of George Washington.
  • 3. Volwiler, A. T. George Croghan and the Development of Central New York, 1763-1800.* Placed on-line March 2002. Published in The Quarterly Journal of the New York State Historical Association [New York History], Vol. IV, No. 1 (January, 1923), pp. 21-40.
  • 4. Volwiler, A. T. “George Croghan and the Westward Movement, 1741-1782.” The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 46, no. 4 (1922): 273–311.

Repository Details

Part of the American Jewish Historical Society Repository

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